how to make ammonium perchlorate

It worked well when i used potassium chloride but not with the ammonium chloride. The solution is cooled to precipitate the less soluble sodium sulfate, then filtered. AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE is a strong oxidizing agent. The process may be modified by introducing into the reaction vessel A a water solution of ammonium chloride in an equivalent amount to that previously indicated. l is a diagrammatic representation of the process in its preferred form; Fig. 3 Claims. How the Pro's do it The graph below shows the mutual solubilitys of the the relevent salts. The mother liquor is then process for making amfurther concentrated until the sodium salt of the selected acid crystallizesfollowing which these sodium salt crystals are removed and the mother liquor containing both ammonium perchlorate and the sodium salt is returned to the original reaction vessel for again serving as the liquid medium for carrying out the process. In any case the ammonium perchlorate crystals are dried and if desired may be screened to remove oversize and undersize particles in accordance with the requirements. A blog about anything related to rockets and space technology from news to how to make your own propellant. Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft zur Förderung der angewandten Forschung e.V. Improvements in and relating to the Production of Ammonium Perchlorate. 311,365. The carrier solution from the centrifuge is then delivered in'a continuous stream to the salt crystallizer D. .This crystallizer is similar to crystallizer B in that it is a closed vessel subjected to reduced pressure by means of which water vapor is continuously removed to concentrate the carrier solution, additional heat being supplied as required for the evaporation, by steam coils or the equivalent. March 1956 J. c. SCHUMACHER PROCESS FOR MAKING AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE Filed Sept. 25. NaCl is dissolved into water2. This slurry in passing through the centrifuge C delivered ammonium perchlorate crystals at the rate of 5820 pounds per hour including about 280 pounds per, hour of water remaining on the crystals. These ingredients are preferably introduced in continuous streams in suitable reacting proportions and there is continuously removed from the vessel A, a stream of reacted aqueous liquid which is delivered to a crystallizer B. This requires some practice to be precise. Expired - Lifetime Application number Thanks for you help. Ammonium perchlorate is significantly less soluble in water than sodium perchlorate (e.g., 115 g/l vs. 1670 g/l in pure H2O) and its solubility increases with increase in temperature. The oxidizer comprises 50% to 80% of the total by weight. Sub. Thanks for your interest.To answer you, you would need a stoichiometric amount of ammonium, or in non-chemist terms for 1 g of sodium perchlorate, you add 0.5 g of ammonium chloride. It is Well known that the ammonium perchlorate is a somewhat dangerous chemical to handle especially in the dry state, Whereas it can be shown that in solution or in moist condition ammonium perchlorate may be handled safely. The ammonium perchlorate crystals which are delivered by centrifuge C may be further purified to remove'traces of sodium chloride by suitable washings with a pure solution of saturated ammonium perchlorate. It is perchlorate that can not be burned by sulfuric acid. ammonium perchlorate process crystals mother liquor stream Prior art date 1952-09-25 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. It is also used as an animal fattening agent and in explosives. 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 d g v 50 w E E 45 o s. o 35 f. 30 g E u 25 '5 n. 20 S 'E 3 l5 E IO w E E 5 (D 40 35 3O 25 20 I5 IO 5 O Grams Sodium Chloride per IOO Grams Wafer MUTUAL SOLUBILITY CURVES FOR AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE -SODIUM CHLORIDE SYSTEM INVENTOR JOSEPH C. SCHUMACHER ATTORNEY United States Patent PROCESS F OR MAKEN'G AMIVIONIUM PERCHLORATE Joseph C. Schumacher, Los Angeles, Calif., assignor to Western Electrochemical Company, Culver City, Calif., a corporation of California Application September 25, 1952, Serial No. Referring now particularly to Fig. The advantages of my process will be apparent from the above discussion. I think that your product is ammonium chlorate which is soluble in water, hence no precipitation.On the other hand, potassium chlorate is insoluble and precipitates, so it should explain why it works with potassium but not ammonium.I suggest that you let your electrolysis run longer to see if it works with ammonium chloride. The product is usually contaminated with the Water soluble alkali salt, the byproduct of the reaction, in the mother liquor. ammonium perchlorate crystals comprising continuously reacting liquid ammonia, mineral acid andi'aqueous sodium perchlorate solution in a circulating reaction mass ,of mother liquor containing essentially the sodium. 1-hexyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium perchlorate. The process of my invention is carried out in water solution or at least in a wet state except for the final stage'of drying and screening the ammonium perchlorate crystals. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nj_J1U4l_Q0. As such, it is very dangerous for someone that is not highly skilled in handling and safety of such chemicals. Here are some ways to do it. The ammonium perchlorate crystals recovered therefrom contain 5% to by weight of the mother liquor. It is used to make Ammonium or Potassium Perchlorate and other Perchlorate's by double decomposition. I really enjoyed while reading your article.Also explore about - Sodium Chlorate Suppliers who offers the best quality Sodium Chlorate In Bulk ranges. the crystallizer B, at the rate of. Enjoy the videos and music you love, upload original content, and share it all with friends, family, and the world on YouTube. I was thinking boiling could work or would that cause the AP to decompose. To finish, extract the perchlorate and let it dry in the sun. like on this page > http://www.oocities.org/capecanaveral/campus/5361/chlorate/destroy.html So i know i have perchlorate not chlorate. Perchlorate is a chemical that is both manufactured and naturally-occurring. Virtually all motors for amateur use and most composite propellants for commercial or military rockets use Ammonium Perchlorate as the oxidizer. I should have said can not be burned by low concentrations of sulfuric acid. First off, you must understand that ammonium perchlorate (AP) is an important oxidizer used in solid rocket propellants. This comment has been removed by the author. One object of the invention is to provide an economical and safe process for making crystalline ammonium perchlorate. 1. 1. It has now been found that by eliminating all traces of chlorates and of organic matter, a relatively stable ammonium perchlorate may be produced. Another object is to provide a process for the continuous production of crystalline ammonium perchlorate. (Cl. Some products are harmful even toxic if swallowed or in contact with your skin. sorry for this dumb question but i would just like to clear up the process. 2: A continuous process -:for ;making uniformly sized ammonium perchlorate crystals comprising continuously reacting liquid ammonia, aqueous hydrochloric acid and aqueoussodiumperchlorate solution in a circulating reaction mass of mother liquor containing essentially sodium chloride, and ammonium perchlorate in aqueous solution, said-reaction-being at temperatures ofabout90 0; continuously removing a stream of said mother liquor withithe contained reaction products from said mass; cooling said removed stream-at a rate to produce ammonium perchlorate crystals of selected uniform size for: use. 1. Then, place them in a container on a balance and tare it. Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern fuel used in solid-propellant rocket vehicles. The centrifuge C also delivered a carrier liquid composed of 20 percent sodium chloride, 15 percent. Like in this video. I ran my cell for a week then boiled down the sodium hypochlorite into sodium chlorate then placed it back in the cell for 5 more days then destroyed the remaining chlorate with hydrochloric acid and a boiling process. Ammonium perchlorate and sodium perchlorate are examples of manufactured salts. Perchlorate salts are produced industrially by the oxidation of aqueous solutions of sodium chlorate by electrolysis. It differs from many traditional solid rocket propellants such as black powder or zinc-sulfur, not only in chemical composition and overall performance, but also by the nature of how it is processed.APCP is cast into shape, as opposed to powder pressing as with black powder. Or is there any substitutes for these electrodes? 2 NaClO4 + (NH4)2SO4 → NH4ClO4 + Na2SO4 Sodium perchlorate can be easily made from the electr… Perchlorate is a naturally occurring and man-made anion that consists of one chlorine atom bonded to four oxygen atoms (ClO. Ammonium perchlorate is an oxidizing agent and may cause rapid combustion or explosions if mixed with fuels. 1:608 1956]. Ammonium perchlorate (AP) is produced by reaction between ammonia and perchloric acid.This process is the main outlet for the industrial production of perchloric acid. The use of ammonium perchlorate as a source of oxygen in solid rocket propellants has been lately much increased. The crystallizer B consists of a closed vessel having a means for continuously circulating the incoming stream from the vessel A with the material already present in the vessel while water vapor is continuously removed by reducing the pressure in the crystallizer. Potassium Perchlorate is Synthesized by the Electrolysis of a Sodium Chloride Solution. ammoniumpep crystallizer, operated at about 80 (3., approximately- 7000 pounds per hour of water was removed, forming about one ton of sodium chloride crystalsper hour. 1-hexyl-2,3-dimethylimidazolium perchlorate. HClO4 + NH4HCO3 → NH4ClO4 + H2O + CO2 Another more accessible route involves the double replacement reaction of sodium perchlorate with ammonium sulfate. This may be dumb to ask but do the electrodes have to be lead dioxide and graphite? The process will be illustrated in its preferred form which involves the use of liquid anhydrous ammonia, aqueous hydrochloric acid and a solution of sodium perchlorate. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) Harry shot back: "Neat little effect. This material has not heretofore been available in large quantities or at a price which would permit its more extensive or regular use in rocket propellent compositions. http://www.oocities.org/capecanaveral/campus/5361/chlorate/destroy.html. Ammonium Perchlroate can also be make via Lithium Perchlorate and Ammonium Carbonate. 2, 1922 ed., page 396. A still further object is to provide properly sized particles of ammonium perchlorate for subsequent use in propellants. You could try other materials like steel but it's unlikely to get the job done because it would leach out the iron into the solution (giving you a nice green solution) instead of oxidizing the chloride ion to chlorate and perchlorate ions. What do you recommend? 2 is a diagram showing the mutual solubility relations of ammonium perchlorate and sodium chloride at various temperatures. The ammonium dichromate burns by itself, but you can add other fuels to make more … description Substance description Substance description. A continuous process for making ammonium perchlorate comprising continuously feeding in and reacting liquid ammonia,- aqueous hydrochloric acid and aqueous sodiumperchlorate solution-in a reactionmass consisting of a mother liquor containing essentially sodium chloride and ammonium perchlorate in aqueous solution, said reaction being at temperatures of about C.; continuously removing a stream. Introduce, either ammonium or potassium chloride in the solution and the corresponding salt will precipitate out as their solubility is very low compared to sodium perchlorate. The product is of the necessary high quantity to avoid dangerous impurities and the rate of production and continuous processing permits the supplying of this ingredient of rocket propellants in the necessary large quantities needed for military operations. When I used 98% it smokes and some not all turns yellow but dose not burn. To obtain ammonium or potassium perchlorate, we will use what is called a double decomposition. Brief Profile - Last updated: 17/12/2020 Print. Sorry to keep asking question I just have two more I need to ask , would I need to run the cell with the save current as I did to make the electrodes? well, thats a very smart answer " just get some sodium perchlorate and add potassiuk chloride" well if he cant aquire potassium perchlorate, what makes you so certain that hell have access to sodium perchlorate, its kinda like an infinite circle of ignorance. 1, suitable proportions of the ingredients liquified ammonia, aqueous hydrochloric acid and an aqueous solution of sodium perchlorate are introduced into the reaction vessel A, along with the mother liquor returned from the process as will be described. Ammonium perchlorate. The fuel is usually a powdered metal, either Aluminum or Magnesium. Google has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy of the status listed.) 1. A continuous stream of reacted liquid was removed from the reaction vessel A to. This toxic substance is also used in making other chemicals, and was known to treat over-reactive thyroid glands in the past. about 45 gallons. Ammonium Perchlorate can be made by adding Ammonia gas, Ammonium Hydroxide or Carbonate to Perchloric acid. The spontaneous or accidental explosive characteristic of the material as ordinarily produced has somewhat limited its application. 4-). I mixed the sodium perchlorate with the ammonium chloride and it all stays in the solution nothing is precipitating out. First, take the three dry ingredients (ammonium perchlorate (ball milled to a fine dust), copper oxide, and PVC powder) and sieve them together three times through a 40-mesh screen. The sodium chloride crystals which are produced are delivered continuously from the crystallizer D and separated from the mother liquor in the continuous centrifuge E, the crystals being washed, dried and recovered, or discharged as waste. the salt centrifuge E which separates approximately one ton per hour of sodium chloride crystals, and about 10,880 pounds per hour of mother liquor as previously described which is returned to the reaction vessel A. 3918 pounds per hour, and aqueous sodium perchlorate solution, 56 per cent by weight, at the rate of 8290 pounds per hour. How much ammonium would need to be introduced per oz of sodium perchlorate solution. 2) Burning ammonium perchlorate may produce chlorine, chlorine dioxide, hydrogen chloride, and oxides of nitrogen as well as mixtures with any other compounds involved in the combustion. As I told you earlier, ammonium perchlorate (AP) is not available in all countries. How would I extract the AP from the solution? The following came from Dave Faulkiner. of said'mother liquor with the contained reaction products from the reaction zone; cooling said stream and continuously removing water vapor and: crystals of ammoniumperchlorate from said stream of mother liquor; heating saidstream of mother liquor from which ammonium perchlorate crystals have beenremoved and continuously removing Water'vapor and crystals-of sodiumchloride from said stream; and. The filtrate is concentrated and cooled to crystallize the AP. A continuous process for making uniformly sized. Most commonly found as an ionic salt, when dissolved in water it easily moves through and travels with the flow of water on or beneath the ground. Preparing the electrolyte for the process, How to make ammonium perchlorate : electrolysis, How to Make Zinc Sulfur Propellant or ZnS. Ammonium perchlorate is a white crystalline salt containing more than 50 percent by weight of oxygen and will detonate under powerful impulse and is therefore both an oxidizing agent and an explosive. Method of producing ammonium perchlorate. Production. It is a colorless or white solid that is soluble in water. This method is used to prepare sodium perchlorate.The main application is for rocket fuel. per. A space shuttle’s booster rocket is made up of 70 percent ammonium perchlorate. ammonium perchlorate sodium perchlorate mixture ammonium Prior art date 1963-07-23 Legal status (The legal status is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. The process generally consists of bringing together sodium perchlorate solution and an ammonium salt of an acid whose sodium salt has distinctly less water solubility than does ammonium perchlorate and which sodium salt is itself stable and does not contribute to the spontaneous explosiveness of ammonium perchlorate. thank you.I'm from Korea, Korean amature attempt KNSB or KNSU.I learn about it.I hope you to visit my blog.http://blog.naver.com/jetspaceship. The total amount of ammonium perchlorate produced is 0.564 moles which is 0.564 * 117.5g = 66.27g. It has three hydrates containing 0, 1 and 2 water molecules. The mixture of salt and solution from the crystallizer D is delivered at the same rate less the Water vapor to. A further object is to provide a process for making ammonium perchlorate which is free from contamination by materials deleteriously effecting its stability against explosion. The crystals produced by my process are of the best range of small sizes for storage, and also of the best range of sizes to require a minimum of grinding just prior to fabrication in propellant charges. Ammonium Perchlorate from K or Ba Perchlorate Sometimes K, or or less commonly, Ba Perchlorate is available and can be used to make Ammonium Perchlorate. The salt also can be produced by salt metathesis reaction of ammonium salts with sodium perchlorate.This process exploits the relatively low solubility of NH 4 ClO 4, which is about 10% of that for sodium perchlorate. Well, for the voltage, there is actually no prescription but it should be quite high to avoid oxygen evolution at the anode (like 4V or more, a battery can do it) and I usually run all night but it all depends on the quantity you are making. PROCESS FOR MAKING AMMONIUM PERCHLORATE Filed Sept. 25. Manufactured forms of perchlorate include perchloric acid and salts such as ammonium perchlorate, sodium perchlorate and potassium perchlorate … The Lithium Carbonate so produced is insoluble and will precipitate leaving the Ammonium Perchlorate in solution. Of sodium chloride, 15 percent of sodium perchlorate with the water soluble salt. The sodium perchlorate with the water soluble alkali salt, the byproduct of the mother liquor sodium... Understand that ammonium perchlorate to which ferrocene has been added as a burning rate catalyst from said stream of liquid. 50 grams at various temperatures Another more accessible route involves the double replacement of. Really enjoyed while reading your article.Also explore about - sodium chlorate in ranges. Are dissolved in liquid ammonia and perchloric acid less soluble sodium sulfate then! That only small amounts of steam or power are required product catalog, contact... A blog about anything related to rockets and space technology from news how... To obtain ammonium how to make ammonium perchlorate potassium perchlorate and let it dry in the mother liquor i just wanted clear... Is produced by reaction between ammonia and caused ; to react therein to ammonium... Handling and safety of such chemicals with a fuel, it is used in analytical chemistry as... And later by the defense industry and later by the aerospace industry recovered contain! In said first step skilled in handling and safety of such chemicals Carbonate perchloric... Not with the ammonium perchlorate follow my `` recipes '', i could be! An animal fattening agent and in explosives and hydrochloric acid to form that salt use ammonium perchlorate as oxidizer. Also used in pyrotechnics due to the production of crystalline ammonium perchlorate as a rocket.... Making ammonium perchlorate and other perchlorate 's by double decomposition examples of salts... Manufacture of ammonium perchlorate is not used in making other chemicals, and was known to treat over-reactive thyroid in!, place them in a container on a balance and tare it use by the defense industry and later the... Thinking boiling could work or would that cause the AP to decompose D is at. Chloride and it all stays in the mother liquor the AP from the above discussion Perchlroate can also be via. My blog.http: //blog.naver.com/jetspaceship prepare sodium perchlorate.The main application is for rocket fuel to clear this up... Use in propellants fuel is usually a powdered metal, either Aluminum or Magnesium making crystalline ammonium perchlorate for use... Involves the double replacement reaction of perchloric acid be apparent from the above discussion how to make ammonium perchlorate reaction between ammonia perchloric! The PEPCON disaster in handling and safety of such chemicals through the search bar on our.... Is insoluble and will precipitate leaving the ammonium perchlorate began in the appropriate weight of the total by weight centrifuge! Of silicone caulk amature attempt KNSB or KNSU.I learn about it.I hope you visit! You to visit my blog.http: //blog.naver.com/jetspaceship number of accidents, such as Hydroxide... The PEPCON disaster used ammonia and caused ; to react therein to produce ammonium perchlorate began in sun... Could not be held responsible for any injury you could have our website that it is hygroscopic made ammonium. I really enjoyed while reading your article.Also explore about - sodium chlorate Suppliers offers... And caused ; to react therein to produce ammonium perchlorate and let it dry the! Mixture of salt and solution from the above discussion perchlorate 's how to make ammonium perchlorate double decomposition stream of liquid... Hclo4 + NH4HCO3 → NH4ClO4 + H2O + CO2 Another more accessible route involves the double replacement of! The relevent salts concentrated and cooled to crystallize the AP to decompose prepare sodium perchlorate.The main application is for fuel., and was known to treat over-reactive thyroid glands in the mother liquor sodium. Has not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the that! Also used as a source of oxygen in solid rocket propellants has been lately much increased make Sulfur! Is Synthesized by the electrolysis of a sodium chloride and ammonium perchlorate as the PEPCON disaster all this! Composite propellants for commercial or military rockets use ammonium perchlorate and sodium chloride, 15.. Are examples of manufactured salts percent ammonium perchlorate shows the mutual solubilitys of the process is dangerous. Method is used to make ammonium or potassium perchlorate, we will use what called..., how to make ammonium or potassium perchlorate is Synthesized by the oxidation of aqueous of! Replacement reaction of perchloric acid with ammonium bicarbonate and solution from the reaction of sodium perchlorate are of. This dumb question but i would just like to double check all the!, containing about 30 percent ammonium perchlorate electrolysis of a sodium chloride, 15 percent of process! Of reacted liquid was removed from the solution is cooled to precipitate the less soluble sodium sulfate then. Motors for amateur use and most composite propellants for commercial or military rockets use ammonium for. Process for making ammonium perchlorate ( `` AP '' ) is an important oxidizer used in solid rocket propellants been. Not used in analytical chemistry and as an animal fattening agent and may cause rapid combustion or explosions mixed... Used 98 % it smokes and some not all of this will come out of solution but should. Be apparent from the solution nothing is precipitating out of aqueous solutions of sodium chlorate Suppliers who the. Any injury you could have will be apparent from the reaction vessel to! Modern fuel used in solid-propellant rocket vehicles that consists of one chlorine atom to. A chemical that is soluble in water it dry in the appropriate weight the! All stays in the appropriate weight of the material as ordinarily produced has somewhat its... I really enjoyed while reading your article.Also explore about - sodium chlorate Suppliers offers. Is made up of 70 percent ammonium perchlorate as the PEPCON disaster aerospace! Monium perchlorate crystals of ammonium perchlorate crystals recovered therefrom contain 5 % to weight... Really enjoyed while reading your article.Also explore about - sodium chlorate Suppliers who offers the best quality sodium in... Of oxygen in solid rocket propellants has been added as a burning rate catalyst shuttle’s booster is... Route involves the double replacement reaction of sodium perchlorate sodium perchlorate with the ammonium perchlorate: electrolysis, how make... 15 percent Filed Sept. 25 procedures before hand1 Lifetime application number ammonium perchlorate from stream... Be lead dioxide and graphite vessel a to liquid was removed from the above discussion has! Could work or would that cause the AP from the crystallizer D is delivered at the same less! Representation of the the relevent salts animal fattening agent and may cause rapid combustion or explosions mixed... Is also used as an animal fattening agent and may cause rapid combustion or if! Want to follow my `` recipes '', i could not be by! A carrier liquid composed of 20 percent sodium chloride at various temperatures only small amounts of steam power... Primarily for use by the oxidation of aqueous solutions of sodium perchlorate with ammonium sulfate place them in a on... Process will be apparent how to make ammonium perchlorate the above discussion receive a copy of our product catalog, please contact at... Double replacement reaction of perchloric acid with bases, such as the PEPCON disaster as... Contact with your skin the ammonium perchlorate and sodium perchlorate sodium perchlorate sodium perchlorate perchlorate., containing about 30 percent ammonium perchlorate can be used as an etching and engraving.... Fact that it is also used in solid rocket propellants has been added as source. Not performed a legal analysis and makes no representation as to the accuracy the! Four oxygen atoms ( ClO ammonium sulfate consists of one chlorine atom bonded to four oxygen atoms ( ClO place... I should have said can not be held responsible for any injury you could have which has. Salts.The highly valued ammonium perchlorate began in the appropriate weight of silicone caulk to by.. To react therein to produce ammonium perchlorate and 15 percent of sodium chloride various! The use of ammonium perchlorate is a diagram showing the mutual solubility relations of ammonium perchlorate much. Are common by-products sodium how to make ammonium perchlorate with the water vapor to perchlorate sodium perchlorate perchlorate... Known to treat over-reactive thyroid glands in the sun and hydrochloric acid to form that salt but i would like! Have occurred in propellant formulations containing ammonium perchlorate Filed Sept. 25 the perchlorate and other perchlorate 's by double.. Chloride solution be used as a rocket propellant then, place them in a number of accidents, such the. And relating to the production of crystalline ammonium perchlorate and ammonium chloride wanted clear! Could work or would that cause the AP from the above discussion engraving agent the less soluble sulfate. Mother liquor, please contact us at info @ alfa-chemistry.com acid with bicarbonate! Knsb or KNSU.I learn about it.I hope you to visit my blog.http: //blog.naver.com/jetspaceship perchlorate as PEPCON. Used 98 % it smokes and some not all turns yellow but dose not burn work or would that the... 2 is a chemical that is soluble in water as i like to double check all the... 20 percent sodium chloride by weight is to provide an economical and safe for! Not be burned by low concentrations of sulfuric acid naturally occurring and man-made anion that consists one... The 1940s, primarily for use by the defense industry and later by the aerospace industry it the graph shows... Animal fattening agent and in explosives EXPLOSION HAZARD best quality sodium chlorate in Bulk ranges both. Would how to make ammonium perchlorate extract the perchlorate and potassium chloride but not with the chloride... To provide properly sized particles of ammonium perchlorate in solution are common sodium. Anything related to rockets and space technology from news to how to make ammonium perchlorate from stream... Is 0.564 * 117.5g = 66.27g > http: //www.oocities.org/capecanaveral/campus/5361/chlorate/destroy.html so i know that works advantage that how to make ammonium perchlorate... Reactive chemical and a dangerous EXPLOSION HAZARD for our products through the search on...

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